2020, № 83UDC: 632:633.1163239]:631.445.4(470.620)
Factor of winter wheat chemical protection from pests in various cultivation technologies on the Western Caucasus leached black earthThe aim of the study was to assess the biological and economic efficiency of chemical protection of winter wheat from pests based on long-term monitoring of the population status. Researches were carried out on the basis of long-term 2004-2017 stationary field experiment on five varieties of winter wheat of the P.P. Lukyanenko NCG breeding. Pests were counted according to generally accepted methods of VISR. When crops are clogged in the spring thicket phase from 5 to 64 pcs/m2, except for 2014, the use of herbicides ensured 100% biological efficiency. Epiphytotic development of brown rust was observed in varieties Krasnodarskaya 99 in 2004 and Yuka in 2013 and 2014 - in the phase of milky - waxy ripeness development was from 50.2 to 100% with 100% distribution. Biological efficiency of fungicides was 83-91%. Epiphytotonic development of septoriosis was detected in varieties Krasnodarskaya 99 in 2005 and Nota in 2006 with the disease development from 36 to 41% and 100% distribution. Chemical fungicides biological efficiency was 76-84%. Epiphytothies of pyrenoforosis were observed in the varieties Nota and Fortuna in 2008, Yuka in 2012 and Antonina in 2016 - on 100% of plants in control, the disease development on the flag leaf ranged from 20.4% to 24.5%. Chemical protection ensured biological efficiency of 69-75%. From 2008 to 2017, the biological effectiveness of insecticides ranged from 45 to 79% when the population of common singer was higher than the EPO. Within 6 years, the population of wheat thrips was higher than the EPO and chemical insecticides reduced it by 67-80%. The population of the pest turtle larvae was higher than the EPO for 8 years. In the variant of chemical protection the number of damaged grains varied from 0 to 0,4% by years. The maximum economic efficiency of chemical protection was established in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, when the value of the saved crop was from 14,0 to 26,4 c/ha.
Keywords: Winter wheat, variety, population, weed plants, diseases, pests, chemical protection, biological efficiency, economic efficiency, weather predictors, cultivation technology
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- Pikushova Emilia Alexandrovna, Phd in Biology, Professor, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Shadrina Larisa Anatolievna, Phd in Biology, associate Professor, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Dolbilova Tatiana Aleksandrovna, graduate, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.