2022, № 99UDC: 636.22/.28.034:637.12.072
Characteristics of lactation of Ayrshire cows of various genotypes by beta-caseinGenotyping of 188 Ayrshire first-alf cows was carried out in order to establish the A1A1, A1A2, and A2A2 genotypes of the beta-casein gene. The actual frequency of occurrence of genotype A1A1 was 0.1, genotype A1A2 - 0.52 and genotype A2A2 - 0.37. The frequency of occurrence of the desired A2 allele was 0.63. It was found that the milk productivity and quality of the milk obtained for 305 days of lactation, in cows with different beta-casein genotypes was at a high level, the increase in productivity coincided with an increase in the number of milking days. The highest milk yield was observed in the first heifers of the A2A2 group, it was 6909 kg of milk for 305 days of lactation. Milk quality indicators were approximately at the same level, no significant differences between the groups were established. Group A2A2 was inferior in MJ to group A1A2 - 0.03% and in MDB was inferior to group A1A2 - 0.03%, group A1A1 - 0.06%. In general, the A2A2 beta - casein genotype did not have a negative effect on milk productivity. At the same time, cows with the A2A2 genotype had high milk production coefficients, as well as a high lactation index. The analysis of lactation curves showed that the first heifers, regardless of the established genotype, had a high coefficient of lactation constancy. The highest rate of lactation constancy of 113.1% was observed in the A2A2 group. The first heifers of this group had a strong aligned lactation curve, while having a high coefficient of lactation usefulness. In the first heifers with the A1A2 genotype, the peak of lactation occurred in the second month, the animals of this group had the lowest coefficient of drop in milk yields and had a strong stable lactation curve. In the first heifers with the A1A1 genotype, the coefficient of lactation constancy was the lowest, the lactation curve was not uniform, the coefficient of milk yield drop was the highest among the groups and amounted to 69.6%. Statistical processing of productivity data showed the absence of reliable, significant differences between different genetic groups. The analysis of the data and the use of these coefficients allowed us to assess the productive qualities of the Ayrshire first-calf cows, depending on the beta-casein gene variant established in them, in order to further breed and improve highly productive animals.
Keywords: Ayrshire cows, beta-casein gene, dairy productivity, lactation curve, indicators of lactation constancy.
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- Kuleshova Elena Alekseevna, PhD in Biology, head laboratory, FSBSI "Krasnodar Research Centre for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine".
- Moskalenko Elena Alexandrovna, PhD in Technology, senior researcher employee, FSBSI "Krasnodar Research Centre for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine".
- Bychenko Natalya Vladimirovna, researcher, FSBSI "Krasnodar Research Centre for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine".
- Aboneev Vasily Vasilyevich, DSc in Agriculture, professor, Corresponding Member of RAS, ch. scientific employee, FSBSI "Krasnodar Research Centre for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine".