2022, № 97UDC: 633.18:631.52
Balance of the amino acid composition of domestic rice varietiesRice is a functional food product because it contains antioxidants, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins. However, not all its varieties are equally useful. Black-grain and red-grain rice varieties contain tens of times more antioxidants than white-grain ones. They are also characterized by a higher content of vitamins and trace elements. The protein content of colored and white-grained varieties does not differ significantly. The protein composition determines the functional characteristics, nutritional properties, texture, taste value of rice. The biological value of rice is higher than that of many cereals, due to a more balanced composition of amino acids. The largely varying amino acid composition of rice varieties determines their different nutritional value. Deficiency of amino acids disrupts the synthesis of hormones, pigments, vitamins. In food, their unbalanced composition weakens the immune system, provokes various diseases. So it was found that the probability of diabetes is increased with a lack of serine, alanine, arginine. Rice has a higher protein digestibility, due to a higher content of lysine, an amino acid that limits its assimilation in cereals. A wide variability of rice varieties in amino acid content has been established. At the same time, the increased content of asparagine together with soluble sugars at temperatures above 120оC and not high humidity causes the formation of acrylamide carcinogenic substance. In the protein of wheat, oats, corn, rye, asparagine is at least 2-3 times more than in rice. The addition of rice flour to pastries and confectionery reduces the carcinogenicity of products. The study of the amino acid composition of rice varieties showed a wide inter-variety variation by trait. The sources of methionine content are the following varieties: Leader, Khazar, Idol, Anahit, Moor Olympus, Yuzhny, Courage, Svetlana, Rain. High threonine content is typical for varieties: Birch, Waterfall, Gamma, Caprice, Svetlana, Sonnet. Varieties with a high content of leucine have been identified: Favorit, Polevik, Flagship, Esaul, Pearl. Sources of phenylalanine content of the variety: Mulatto, Azov, Day / night, Waterfall, Rain, Pearl, Svetlana, Zlata.
Keywords: Rice, amino acid composition of protein, essential amino acids, variability.
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- Goncharova Julia Konstantinovna, DSc in Biology, Head of the Laboratory, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "FNC Rice"; LLC "Aratai".
- Kharitonov Evgeny Mikhailovich, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, professor, supervisor, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Yakunina Angela Anatolyevna, agronomist, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "FNC Rice".
- Simanova Victoria Vasilievna, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "FNC Rice".