2018, № 75UDC: 68:634.1
Fruit crops production technology in IngushetiaThe aim of the work is to study some techniques of intensive technology for producing promising varieties of pomegranates (apple of, summer, autumn, winter varieties) and stone fruit (plum, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry). To achieve the goal, natural and soil conditions for the development of fruit crops were considered, the breed and varietal composition of plantations was established taking into account the direction of the fruit growing of the republic and the specialization of the economy with the use of a rectangular system of tree placement. For pome fruits, the distance between the rows is 3.5 m, between the trees - 80 and 50 cm, the number of plants per 1 ha in grades - 3640, pieces. spruce apple varieties (Super Chief, Scarlet) - 5800, pcs. and for stone fruit crops the distance between the rows is 3.5 m, between the trees 1-1.5 m, the number of plants per 1 ha is 3850 pcs. (cherry, peach, nectarine) and 1914 pcs. (apricot, plum). With the help of pruning, important tasks are solved, such as tree crown shaping, regulating the light and air regimes in the crown, the timing of the introduction of plantations during productive fruiting, obtaining annual high yields of high-quality fruits, increasing winter hardiness, applying modern technical means for soil care and planting, including pruning and harvesting of fruits. The system of care in the garden includes the content of the soil in a loose and weed-free state, tinning with the use of grass mixtures (clover with timothy grass, alfalfa and burbot). The system of fertilizers application was developed taking into account soil-climatic conditions, the system of soil maintenance and cultivation, and the rock and varietal composition of the garden, the supply of moisture and the planned harvest. The most effective is the organo-mineral system for the application of fertilizers. Irrigation was carried out with the waters of the mountain river Assa, the water was supplied to the trees by an automated system of drip irrigation. The system of crop protection measures included ensuring cross-pollination, regulation of fruiting by chemical methods. The beginning of harvesting was determined by the removable maturity of the fruit. Harvesting of fruits was carried out in accordance with the technique of mabual fruits harvesting and using a fruit harvester. Yields for fruit crops were as follows: apple - Red Johnaprints variety - 85,6 tons per hectare for the 3rd year of planting, average for gradesof the 3rd year of planting - 51,0 tons per hectare, average for grades of 4th year of planting - 58,0 t / ha, peach - 26,0 t / ha, plum - 17,0 t/ha, apricot - 5,0 t/ha, nectarine - 26,0 t/ha, sweet cherry - 6.5 t/ha.
Keywords: Intensive garden, rootstock, pome and stone fruit crops, variety, planting scheme, pruning, yield
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- Khashagulgova Makka Akhmetovna, Phd in Biology, Associate Professor, FGBOU VO "Ingush State University", Magas.
- Khashagulgov Umar Ahmetovich, Phd in Agriculture, Associate Professor, FGBOU VO "Ingush State University", Magas.
- Getokov Oleg Olievich, DSc in Biology, Professor, FGBOU VO " V.M. Kokova Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University", Nalchik.