2018, № 75UDC: 636.234.1.034.085.25:591.13
GSNTI: 68.39.15, 68.39.29
The influence of the level and degradability of protein in the rumen on nitrogen metabolism and milk productivity of Holstein cows in early lactationThe objective of this experiment was to determine the possibility of reducing the need for crude protein (CP) depending on the ratio of the rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP). The experiments were carried out on four Holstein first-calf cows in 42±8 d in early lactation. Cows were equipped with rumen cannulas (d=5 cm), the experiment was carried out according to the scheme of the Latin square 4½4. Rations: 1st-15.7% CP, RUP:RDP = 7.6:8.1% DM, 50:50% CP; 2nd - 15.7% CP, RUP:RDP = 5.4:10.3% DM, 35:65% CP; 3rd-17.7% CP, RUP:RDP = 9.1:8.7% DM, 50:50% CP; 4th - 17.7% CP, RUP:RDP = 6.3:11.4% DM, 35:65% CP. In the experiment there were 4 periods of 22 days each: 12 days-adaptation to a new diet, 10 days - collection period.There is a significant reduction in feed consumption and milk yield (p<0.005) in cows on a diet with a reduced 15.7% CP and a content of 6.7% RDP (RUP:RDP = 43:57% CP). There was a tendency to reduce feed consumption and milk yield in cows on a diet of 17.7% CP, the content of RDP = 11.4% DM (RUP: RDP = 35:65% CP). On a diet with a level of CP 15,7%, but a higher amount of RDP 10,3% DM, feed intake and average daily milk yield (38,7 kg/day), the efficiency of nitrogen use in the biosynthesis of milk protein was at a high level. The maximum milk yield of 39.4 kg / d was observed in cows on a diet with 17.7% CP, the content of RDP 8.7 % DM (RUP:RDP = 50:50). The ratio of protein fractions did not have a significant effect on the protein concentration in milk within the 2nd and 4th diets. There is a linear relationship between the concentration of total VFA, acetate in the rumen and the content of RDP in the diet. The efficiency of conversion of N into milk protein decreased with increasing CP level in diets. Digestibility of feed increased with increasing levels of RDP. The urea concentration was linearly related to the amount of RDP in the diets. The ratio of protein fractions and the amount of protein in the diet did not have a noticeable effect on the pH of the rumen fluid. Conclusion: in 15.7% CP the optimum content RDP = 10.3% of the DM at a ratio RUP:RDP = 35:65 % CP, in 17.7% CP is sufficient 8.7% of the RDP at a ratio RUP:RDP = 50:50.
Keywords: Cows, milk production, digestibility, amino acids, rumen, nitrogen balance
- Рядчиков, В. Г. Нормы и рационы для молочного скота / В. Г. Рядчиков. - Гл. 18, с. 277-297. В кн.: «Основы питания и кормления сельскохозяйственных животных», изд-во Лань, Санкт-Петербург. - 2015. - 632 с.
- Справочник «Лабораторные методы исследования в клинике». - Под редакцией Меньшикова В.В. - Москва, «Медицина», 1987 г.
- Харитонов, Е. Л. Методические и инструментальные подходы к изучению физиологическиих и биохимических процессов образования конечных продуктов переваривания питательных веществ кормов // Проблемы биологии продуктивных животных. - 2008. Боровск: № 4. - С. 1-27.
- Arriola Apelo, S. I. Invited review: Current representation and future trends of predicting amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science / S. I. Arriola Apelo, J. Knapp and M. Hanigan. - 2014. - 97:1 - 18. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7392. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
- Bahrami-yekdangi, M. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites1 / M. Bahrami-yekdangi, G. R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, M. A. Khan, & M. H. Ghaffari // Journal of Animal Science. - № 94 (2). - Р. 718-725.
- Barros, T. Effects of dietary crude protein concentration on late-lactation dairy cow performance and indicators of nitrogen utilization / T. Barros, M. A. Quaassdorff, M. J. Aguerre, J. J. Colmenero, O. S. J. Bertics, P. M. Crump & M. A. Wattiaux // Journal of Dairy Science. - 2017. 100. 5434-5448. https://doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2016-11917.
- Brito, A. F. Effects of different protein supplements on milk production and nutrient utilization in lactating dairy cows / A. F. Brito and G. A. Broderick // Journal of Dairy Science. - 2007. 90:1816-1827. 10.3168/jds.2006-558.
- Carlson, D. B. (2006). Metabolic Effects of Abomasal l-Carnitine Infusion and Feed Restriction in Lactating Holstein Cows / D. B. Carlson, N. B. Litherland, H. M. Dann, J. C. Wood-worth & J. K. Drackley // Journal of Dairy Science, 89(12), 4819-4834. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(06)72531-0.
- Colombini, S. Effect of quantifying peptide release on ruminal protein degradation determined using the inhibitor in vitro system / S. Colombini, G. A. Broderick and M. K. Clayton // Journal of Dairy Science. - 2011. 94:1967- 1977 / 94:1952-1960. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3523.
- Davidson, S. (2003). Effects of Amounts and Degradability of Dietary Protein on Lactation, Nitrogen Utilization, and Excretion in Early Lactation Holstein Cows / S. Davidson, B. A. Hopkins, D. E. Diaz, S. M. Bolt, C. Brownie, V. Fellner // Journal of Dairy Science. - 86 (5). - 1681-1689. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(03)73754-0.
- Dijkstra, J. Challenges in ruminant nutrition: Towards minimal nitrogen losses in cattle / J. Dijkstra, C. K. Reynolds, E. Kebreab, A. Bannink, J. L. Ellis, J. France and A. M. van Vuuren. - Р. 47-58 in Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition in Sustainable Animal Production. W. J. Oltjen, E. Kebread and H. Lapierre, ed. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 2013. - DOI: 10.3920/978-90-8686-781-3_3.
- Doepel, L. Milk protein as a Function of amino acid supply J. Dairy / L. Doepel, D. Pacheco, J. J. Kennelly, M. D. Hanigan, I. F. Lopez and H. Lapierre. - Sci. 2004. 87:1279-1297. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73278-6.
- Ferraretto, L. F. Influence of essential amino acid balancing post-partum on lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis. Journal of Dairy Science / L. F. Ferraretto, C. S. Ballard, C. J. Sniffen and I. Shinzato. - 99. 2016. (Suppl. 1):718. https://doi.org/10.2527/ jam2016-1505.
- Giallongo, F. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows / F. Giallongo, M. T. Har-per, Oh. J. Lopes, J. C. Lapierre, H. Patton, R. A. Hristov, A. N. // Journal of Dairy Science, 2016. 99(6): 4437-4452. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2015-10822.
- Harold, V. Determination of Preformed Urinary Ammonia (Nitrogen) by Means of Direct Nesslerization / V. Harold, M. D. Connerty, R. Briggs. Anglis, H. Edward, Jr. Eaton // American Journal of Clinical Pathology. - Vol. 28. - Issue 6, 1 Dec 1957, p. 634-638, http://doi.org/ 10.1093/ajcp/28.6.634.
- Huhtanen, P. A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary protein concentration and degradability on milk protein yield and milk n efficiency in dairy cows / P. Huhtanen and A. N. Hristov // Journal of Dairy Science. - 2009. - 92:3222. - 3232. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1352.
- Ipharraguerre, I. R. fermentation and intestinal supply of nutrients in dairy cows fed rumen-protected soy products / I. R. Ipharraguerre, J. H. Clark, D. E. Freeman // Rumen Journal of Dairy Science. -2005. 88:2879-2892. 10.3168/jds. S0022-0302(05)72969-6.
- Kaufman, J. D. (2017). Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress / J. D. Kaufman, K. R. Kassube& A. G. Ríus // Journal of Dairy Science, 100(10), 8132-8145. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-13026.
- Lee, C. ffects of metabolizable protein supply and amino acid supplementation on nitrogen utilization, milk production, and ammonia emissions from manure in dairy cows / C. Lee, A. N. Hristov, K. S. Heyler, T. W. Cassidy, H. Lapierre, G. A. Varga and C. Parys // Journal of Dairy Science. - 2012. 95:5253-5268. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3168/jds.2012-5581.
- Mutsvangwa, T. (2016). Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows / T. Mutsvangwa, K. L. Davies, J. J. McKinnon & D. A. Christensen // Journal of Dairy Science. - 99 (8). - 6298-6310. doi:10.3168/ jds.2016-10917.
- National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th rev. ed., 2001 Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
- Olmos Colmenero. JJ and Broderick GA. Effect of amount and ruminal degradability of soybean meal protein on performance of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 2006. 89: 1635-1643. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06) 72238-X.
- Tacoma, R. (2017). Ratio of dietary rumen degradable protein to rumen undegradable protein affects nitrogen partitioning but does not affect the bovine milk proteome produced by mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows / R. Tacoma, J. Fields, D. B. Ebenstein, Y.-W. Lam & S. L. Greenwood // Journal of Dairy Science, 100(9), 7246-7261. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-12647.
- Van Amburgh, M. E. / The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system: currend and future approaches for balancing of amino acids / M. E. Van Amburgh, T. R. Overton, L. E. Chase, D. A. Ross and E. B. Recktenwald // Proceeding of the Cornel l Nutrition Conference For Need Manufacturers. New York. - October 20-22, 2009. С. 28-37.DOI: 10.3168/jds.2015-9378.
- Wattiaux, M. A. (2004) Protein level for alfalfa and corn-silage based diets: I. Lactational response and milk urea nitrogen / M. A. Watti-aux, and K. L. Karg // Protein level for alfalfa and corn-silage ba Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 3480-3491. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73483-9.
- Cyriac, J. Lactation performance of midlactation dairy cows fed ruminally degradable protein at concentrations lower than National Research Council recommendations / J. Cyriac, A. G. Rius, M. L. McGilliard, R. E. Pearson, B. J. Bequette, and M. D. Hanigan. Journal of Dairy Science. - 2008. 91:4704-4713. doi:10.3168/jds.2008-1112.
- Ryadchikov Victor Georgievich, Professor VAK, head. Department, DSc in Biology, Professor; Physiology and feeding of agricultural animals, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Tantawi Abuelkasim, Postgraduate; Physiology and feeding of agricultural animals, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Komarova Nina Sergeevna, Postgraduate; Physiology and feeding of agricultural animals, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Shlyakhova Oksana Germanovna, Phd in Biology, associate; Physiology and feeding of agricultural animals, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.
- Dmitrienko Stanislav Nikolaevich, Phd in Biology, associate Professor; Physiology and feeding of agricultural animals, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “I.T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University”.