2018, № 72UDC: 633.853.52:631.521
Soybean selection as an instrument for solving import substitution tasks in the Far Eastern Federal DistrictThe leading role insolving the food security problem of the country belongs to the strategically important capital of the country - genetic plant resources. The increase in soybean production is possible due to the expansion of increasing crop yields, which is provided by the growth of the potential productivity of new varieties. The task of creating soybean varieties, which are capable of ensuring high yields in conditions with limited thermal resources, is successfully solved by the scientific institutions of the Far East. An absolute leader is the All-Russian SRI of Soybean, which has a powerful genetic collection of the cultivated and wild soybean. The countries of the Asia-Pacific region have a great interest in soybean, as the varieties of Far Eastern selection are not subjected to gene modifications and are capable of producing high yields in conditions with limited thermal resources. Breeders of the All-Russian SRI of Soybean created more than 80 varieties, besides in 2018 year, 35 soybean varieties of the Amur selection were included in the State Register of Selection Achievement, permitted to use in the production. The artificial and natural hybridization, pedigree method, chemical and radiation mutagenesis are used in the creation of varieties. The variety samples, varieties-sources, donors of cultivated and wild soybean with high economic-valuable traits are involved in the crossbreeding. Studies on the resistance of soybean to diseases are based on the method of introducing resistance genes into varieties through backcrosses. Using physiological methods for estimation of soybean breeding material, the germination power of seeds under conditions of physiological drought or over-wetting is studied, and varieties, ensuring high yields both in conditions of over-wetting and with a lack of moisture, are created. The varieties, whose seeds are resistant to low positive temperatures during the germination period and characterized by the productivity level from 35 to 42 c/ha, are in demand among soybean producers. A competent variety policy allows increasing the efficiency of crop cultivation in the region. To further increase soybean production in the Far East, serious attention should be paid to increasing soybean yields through realizing the potential productivity of varieties in production conditions.
Keywords: Soybean, Far East, selection, variety, hybridization, methods of selection, heritability, yield, sowing area
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- Sinegovskaya Valentina Timofeevna, Academician of RAS, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Honored Science Worker of Russia, Director, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean”.
- Fokina Evgenia Mihailovna, Phd in Agriculture, leading research assistant of the Soybean Selection Laboratory, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean”.