2017, № 64UDC: 631.51:631.8:633
The effect of different tillage systems, fertilizers and green manure crops on soil fertility and yields of field crops in short crop rotationIn the short three-field crop rotation with the greatest reserves of productive moisture in 0-100 cm soil layer at the beginning of the spring growing season of winter wheat and before planting of corn and soybeans was on traditional technology 136,6; 139,5 and 139.7 mm respectively, slightly inferior to her flail with minimal decompression, and the lowest results were at a minimum mulch 119,0; 120,3 and of 131.6 mm. The study of agrophysical properties of soil under field crops in crop rotation has shown that a minimum of mulch treatment on 8-10 cm loosened mainly topsoil, but much of the underlying compacted horizon of 20-40 cm where the density of the composition was made up of 1.51-1,56 g/cm3. However, the optimal density was at a minimum mulch with decompression and traditional technologies. So in the layer 0-20 cm under the crops it was 1.24-1.25 g/cm3 and 1.21 to 1.24 g/cm3. In the horizon of 20-40 cm, these figures increased, and especially before cleaning. One of the indicators of addition of soil and its degree of compaction is the porosity. The high porosity possessed by the soil layer 0-20 cm traditional 52,8-55,0 %, and a minimum mulching with decompression of 53.5-54,0 % technology, and the lowest observed minimum on mulch and 47.7-50.1 per cent, less than half the volume of the mass of the soil, which is insufficient for normal growth and development of plants. With regard to green manure crops (corn), thanks to the return of dry organic matter depending on the cultivation technology of the previous culture 1,8-7,5 t/ha Ntot 30,6-127,0 kg/ha, P2O5 9,0-38,0 kg/ha, K2O 31,0-82,0 kg/ha. The research showed that the highest yield of winter wheat on a background N120 P40K20 7,4 t/ha, maize for grain in the background N40P40K20 6,8 t/ha and soybeans on the background N40P60K20 1,8 t/ha was on traditional technology, are insignificant inferior to her minimal mulching with decompression of 7,1 t/ha, 5,8 t/ha and 1,7 t/ha, respectively.
Keywords: Technology, tillage, productive moisture, water consumption, the density of the composition, porosity, soil structure, organic matter, yield
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- Kildyushkin Vasily Mikhailovich, The doctor of agricultural Sciences, Chief Researcher KNIISH, KNIISH them. PP Lukyanenko.
- Soldatenko Alexander Grigoryevich, Candidate of agricultural sciences, Senior Researcher, KNIISH them. PP Lukyanenko.
- Kitaygora Tatiana Sergeevna, Postgraduate, KNIISH them. PP Lukyanenko.
- Onischenko Lyudmila Mikhailovicha, The doctor of agricultural Sciences, Professor, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "I. T. Trubilin Kuban State Agrarian University".
- Boyko Aleksandr Petrovich, Candidate of agricultural sciences, Director, Adler Research Station VIR.