2016, № 60UDC: 634.55:575.16:631.5
Studies of almond ontogenesis stages as a biological component of agronomy care optimizationSuccessful almond culture under the soil and climatic conditions of the southern regions of Russia is impossible without a detailed study of its biological characteristics. An important feature is the plant response to environmental factors constraints. Short duration of winter dormancy is a characteristic of almond culture associated with the species formation under the soil and climatic conditions of the Central Asian region. In the conditions of the south of the European part of Russia almond plants rapidly emerging winter dormancy due to the winter temperature increase. Air temperature decrease back to negative values results in the death of generative buds and crop yield failure. We studied the terms of the main phenological stages for almond cultivars Primorsky, Vinoslivyi, the Tuono and their hybrids. Differentiation of flower buds in almond occurs in late July under an average daily temperature of 22-25оС. By late October, the formation of flower organs completely finished and formation of archesporial tissue starts in the anthers. In most cultivars, the final stage of its development is meiosis that occurs in December and results in the formation of microspore tetrads. It was revealed that meiosis initiation is a crucial point in generative buds winter dormancy. Single-celled pollen grains develop in January and two-cell ones - in February. The rate of morphogenesis stages is in direct correlation with the cultivar and environmental conditions. In this respect the greater differences were noticed between the early- and late-blossom cultivars. The initial stages of generative buds` formation, pollen grains and embryo sac development, fertilization and ovary formation are significant phases in the annual cycle of almond plants. At these developmental stages compliance with agronomic requirements has a significant effect on the further crop yield quality and quantity.
Keywords: Almond, varieties, time of blossom, ontogenesis, weather conditions, agricultural practices
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- Chernobay Irina Georgievna, Ph D. in agriculture degree, the researcher of fruit culture department, FSBIS «Nikitsky botanical gardens - National Scientific Center of RAS».