2016, № 60UDC: 633.881.4:631
Major agrotechnological methods of yarrow essential oil Eney cultivation on irrigated and rainfed areasThe aim of our work was to provide the comparative assessment of the effectiveness of influence of different nutrient areas and amount of chemical fertilizers on the productivity of new cultivar of common yarrow (Lat. Achillea millefolium) in the conditions of rainfed areas and irrigation. The agrotechnological methods for the first cultivar of the common yarrow essential oil Eney cultivation are suggested in the article. There are six species of yarrow in the Crimea. The most widespread one is bristly yarrow (Lat. Achillea Setacea). This variety grows in the slopes of the hills, near the roads, and on the pastures. This plant propagation is provided with the help of seeds and roots. However, this plant’s essential oil does not comprise azulene - very important element for the pharmacy. The studies that were conducted in the research were aimed on the cultivation of the variety of common yarrow essential oil Eney on poor, unsuitable lands for another agricultural crops in the conditions of irrigated and rainfed areas in the foothill territories of the Crimea. The influence of the nutrient area, kinds and amount of chemical fertilizers on the productivity and yield of the essential oil from the first cultivar of common yarrow essential oil Eney was studied for the first time. Analyzing weather conditions during the period of studies it was it was founded that the situation with the moisture in the soil was fragile; the amount of humidity was insufficient from July to August (this is the period of drought). During this period, the raw yarrow is cut and plants with crop residues left after the harvesting get into the extreme drought weather conditions and die. Therefore, it is necessary to provide plants with extra moisture in this phase. As a consequence of field experiments with irrigation, it was determined: the optimum placement schema for yarrow is 60½20 cm; the optimum amount of fertilizers is N90P90; the highest amount of essential oil was gained at interaction both placement schema 60½20 cm and applying fertilizers N90P90. In field experiment cultivating yarrow essential oil “Eney” in the rainfed conditions the highest yield was gained at interaction both placement schema 60½20 cm and applying fertilizers N90P90. Mass fraction of the chamazulene in the essential oil of the common yarrow essential oil Eney cultivar was 49,45% . This result was achieved in the field with irrigation applying the increased dose of chemical fertilizers N90P90 and mass fraction of essential oil exceeded the control by 10,6%. At interaction both placement schema 60½20 cm and applying fertilizers N90P90 in the fields with irrigation the efficiency of production was 412% and in the rainfed areas - 577%. The methods of common yarrow essential oil Eney cultivation for obtaining essential oil containing azulene were developed for the first time. The crop cultivation in the rainfed areas was suggested.
Keywords: Yarrow, cultivar, placement schema, chemical fertilizers, productivity, essential oil, weeds, irrigation, rainfed areas, economic efficiency,
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