Труды Кубанского государственного аграрного университета

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2016, № 60

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Features of agrotechnology cucurbits crops in the zone of risky agriculture of the Russian Federation

The conditions of the Volgograd TRANS-Volga region are favorable for growing melons, but due to frequent dust storms, a long absence of rainfall, high air temperatures are a zone of risky agriculture and often lead to harvest failure. Development of agricultural technologies is an important moment in the industrial production of melons. At Bykov experiment station conducts fundamental research on improvement of technologies of cultivation of watermelon, melon and pumpkin. The experiments are conducted in two types of crop rotation: grass and preprophase deployed in time and space. The inclusion in the crop rotation legume crops adapted to the warm, continental climate (studies in chickpea Cicer arietinum) allows to enrich the soil with biologically active nitrogen - nutrient content in soils of the Volgograd TRANS-Volga region is low. As intensification of agriculture increases the need for greater weed control. According to the study most effectively, the problem is solved with the use of such predecessors as the perennial grasses in the crop rotation of grass and winter rye - in preprophase. Chickpeas on sorochiskaya ability is inferior to perennial grasses in the crop rotation of grass and winter rye in preprophase. Studies have shown that perennial grasses, and in General, grass crop rotation, reduces the period from germination to fruit ripening for 3 to 9 days, in comparison with parapaparam. The use of mineral fertilizers, especially with increased dose of potassium and prolongs the passage of phenological phases of plant development. It is celebrated not only by the culture of the melon, but the melon and the pumpkin. Biochemical composition of fruits of watermelon, obtained by cultivation on various predecessors were not significantly different. There is a decrease in sugars in the fruits obtained by repeated crops of watermelon on the watermelon. The nitrate content in fruits significantly below the MCL (60 mg/kg) in the range of 20.6-30,4 mg/kg. The results of the study estimate the impact of predecessors, fertilizers and growth stimulators on the length of the vegetation period, weediness, yield and quality of fruits.
Keywords: Melon-growing, predecessors, fertilizers, growth promoters, yield, vegetation period, weediness, biochemical composition of fruits


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  1. Kolebochina Tatiana Gennadievna, doctor of agricultural Sciences, Director, Bykovskaya bocheva breeding experimental station of all-Russian research Institute of vegetable growing.
  2. Bykovsky Yuriy Anatolievich, chief researcher, Professor, Center for innovation and technology, doctor of agricultural Sciences, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture.