2016, № 59UDC: 633.853.52:631.52:631.531(571.6)
Development strategy of selection and seed-growing of soybean in the Russian Far EastThe increase in soybean production is possible both through the expansion of sown areas and increase in crop yield that is provided by growth of potential productivity of new varieties. The task of creation of soybean varieties, which can produce high yields in conditions of limited thermal resources, is successfully solved by scientific institutions of the Far East. The absolute leader is All-Russian SRI of Soybean. Scientists of the Institute created a powerful genetic collection of gene-pool of wild and cultivated soybean in order to create varieties of new generation, which are not inferior to varieties of foreign selection. Soybean varieties with the genetic yield potential of 25-42 cwt/ha, cultivated in the Far East, are 80% presented by varieties of selection of ARSRI of Soybean. The region is becoming one of the world leaders in their demand, because the varieties of the Far East selection are not subjected to gene modification and can produce high yields in conditions of limited thermal resources. Breeding works are also conducted in Primorski SRIA and Far East SRIA (Khabarovsk). In 2016, 47 soybean varieties of the Far East selection, including 28 - selection of ARSRI of Soybean, 11 - Primorski SRIA and 5 - Far East SRIA were included in the State Register of selection achievements, allowed for the use in production. Competent varietal policy allows increasing the efficiency of soybean cultivation. In the Far East 2% of all soybean sowings falls to the share of foreign varieties. In Russia as a whole the share of foreign soybean varieties amounts to 17%. Scientific institutions of the Far East not only provide economy with original and elite seeds of highly productive varieties of different maturity groups in the required quantities, but also carry out scientific research on the problems of primary seed-growing and improvement of seed quality. At the production of elite seeds of self-pollinating crops, which include soybean, is used the method of individual-family selection that allow keeping the type of variety through individual selection of the most typical, healthy and productive plants, which are then separately evaluated on progeny for two years. Special attention is paid to variety changing on the basis of proper selection of new varieties, their rapid reproduction and introduction into production. In order to meet the needs of the production, the system of soybean seed-growing and methods of improvement of seeds quality are systematically perfected.
Keywords: Soybean, Far East, selection, variety, hybridization, crop yield, sown area, total yield, primary seed-growing, approbation, seed quality, food security
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- Sinegovskaya Valentina Timofeevna, Corresponding Member of RAS, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Honored Science Worker of Russia, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean.