2016, № 59UDC: 631.52:347.78(430)
Potato production development in Germany: from breeding new varieties to getting healthy seedsGermany has historically been a major potato producer. The country has accumulated a lot of experience of potato cultivation: breeding new varieties, state variety testing systems, seed potato production, admission of seeds and healthy plants use, certification. Potatoes in Germany is cultivated on an area of about 243000 hectares, including table potatoes about 98000 hectares, industrial, or technical, potatoes about 128000 ha, seed potatoes about 17000 hectares. The number of to using admitted varieties is 250. Germany ranks second among the countries of the European Union on the area. According to total yield Germany ranks first in Europe. Across the European Union (63 million tons) Germany accounts for 15% of the potato total yield. Yields of this crop is about 400 cwt/ha. Of the 1500 farms engaged in breeding and seed production and passed state registration, 200 companies for the production of seed potatoes for export were selected. State control of breeding sites is carried out based on the presence of potato cyst nematode, overseeing the storage of seed potatoes and all stages up to the seed certification. Trained specialists-breeders advise seed farms, instructing for each individual class, and monitor the operation of enterprises engaged in seed multiplication. Production of basic seed material is performed at specialized farms in closed phytosanitary farms/regions. Farmland on the Baltic and North Seas is a natural and healthy part of the legally protected areas that is favorable for the production of primary and basic seed. Enterprises engaged in supporting the selection, are located mainly in the so-called healthy areas of the following federal lands: Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg - Western Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein. Other regions is preferably carried out multiplication of planting material of category Z (A) for local farmers and for export to the regions lucrative in relation of transport. For the production of seed material breeders use the primary material produced exclusively on the basis of the meristem culture. Production of seed potatoes up to the 4th generation, meets this requirement, is implemented in enterprises supporting selection, as a rule, in the Breeders' property. The process of supporting the selection is carried out as follows: selection of maternal tuber, creating a gene bank, accelerated breeding, greenhouse culture. A prerequisite for the creation of a gene bank is to check the selected parent tubers for all important viral, bacterial and fungal diseases. Testing is carried out in collaboration with the Departmental Service of Plant Protection. The party of seed potatoes is certified to the declared category only if they meet all the prescribed standards in this category. In the case of non-compliance with these standards party is converted into a lower category or loses certification. Law regulates the procedure for soil sampling for breeding sites. State seed potato certification system allows you to clearly carry out the control of quarantine diseases, the presence of which is a compulsory test in the framework of the certification process. Serological test ELISA makes it possible to identify six viruses: PLRV, PVY, PVA, PVM, PVX, PVS. Seed certification is a prerequisite for maintaining a high level of seed potatoes health, maintenance of the variety purity, traceability along the product label in case of problems. Cooperation between all the partners guarantees a healthy planting material of high quality. The Julius-Kühn-Institute and the Federal Office for Variety Testing carry out centralized supervision of the health and quality of plants at the federal level, with the support of specialized agencies of the federal lands. The lead agency is considered the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.
Keywords: Basic seed (S/EC1, SE/EC2, E/EC3), bacterial diseases, bacteriological test PSA, gene bank, bioassay IF, PCR, viral diseases, fungal diseases, ELISA-test, healthy zone of seed production, meristem culture, support breeding, certified seeds (Z)
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